Muhammad of Ghor (Persian:محمد شہاب الدین غوری) also Muhammad Ghori,Mohammad Ghauri, etc., originally named Mu'izz-ad-din, b.1162 – d.1206, was a Ghurid emperor and the governor of Ghazni from 1173 to 1206.
Muhammad was the brother of the Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad of Ghor, a region of what is now a province in Afghanistan. Ghor lay on the western boundary of the Ghaznevid empire. Before 1160, the Ghaznevid empire covered an area running from central Afghanistan to the Punjab, with capitals at Ghazni and Lahore.
In 1160, the Ghorids conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznevids, and in 1173 Muhammad was made governor of Ghazni. In 1186-7 he conquered Lahore, ending the Ghaznevid empire and bringing the last of Ghaznevid territory under his control.
Muhammad attacked the north-western regions of the Indian subcontinent many times. The first time he was routed in present-day Gujarat by Rajputs. A battle was fought at Kayadara near Mount Abu, where Ghauri's advance was defeated. Gujarat later fell to Muhammad Ghori's armies in 1197.
One account recounts that after taking him prisoner, Ghori ordered the eyes of Prithviraj to be gouged out and made the blind Prithviraj a subject of ridicule in his court.After some time, an archery competition was held in Ghori's kingdom. Prithviraj, being a skilled archer of repute was also brought for this competition and asked to compete to ridicule him further. Prithviraj refused to shoot his arrow on the orders of Ghori's generals, being a king himself. As such, Ghori himself asked Prithviraj to shoot at the target. Prithviraj, instead, turned around and locating the source of the voice, shot his arrow straight into Ghori's throat, killing him instantly. Prithviraj was thus able to avenge his defeat at the hands of Ghori. It was as a result of this that Qutb-ud-din-Aybak, one of Ghori's generals, was able to succeed him and control his empire.
Another version says Muhammad returned to Lahore after 1200 to deal with a revolt of the Gakhar tribe in the Punjab. He suppressed the revolt, but was killed during a Gakhar raid on his camp on the Jhelum River in 1206
Muhammad Ghori conducted massacres of Hindus at Koi (modern Aligarh), Kalinjar and Varanasi, according to Hasan Nizami's Taj-ul-Maasir, 20,000 Hindu prisoners were slaughtered and their heads offered to crows. Hasan Nizami's Taj-ul-Maasir records that in Kol (Modern Aligarh) "those of the horizon who were wise and acute were converted to Islam, but those who stood by their ancestoral faith were slain with the sword. 20,000 prisoners were taken and made slaves. Three bastions were raised as high as heaven with their heads and their carcases became food for the beasts of prey." In Kalinjar "50,000 prisoners were taken as slaves." Similarly, in Varnasi or Kasi (Benaras) :Kamil-ut-Tawarikh of Ibn Asir records, "The slaughter of Hindus (at Varanasi) was immense; none were spared except women and children,(who were taken into slavery) and the carnage of men went on until the earth was weary. Mohammad Ghori : The next important Muslim ruler who had made his influence in Indian history known was Muhammad Ghori. Muhammad Ghori is said to have invaded India seven times. Mohammad Ghori invaded Multan in about 1175-76AD. In 1178 A.D he attempted the conquest of Gujarat. He was strongly resisted by Bhimdev II who inflicted a crushing defeat on him. In 1191AD Mohammad Ghori met Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain. Mohammad Ghori was severely wounded and outnumbered. He was defeated and left the battlefield. In the very next year in 1192 AD both the armies met again at Tarain. This time Mohammad cleverly defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan. In 1194 AD Mohammad Ghori invaded and defeated and killed the ruler of Kannauj Jaichand and also captured Benares. Gwallior, Gujarat and Ajmer were also occupied by 1197 AD. Mohammad Ghori died in 1206AD.
Mohammad Ghori invaded Multan in about 1175-76AD. In 1178 he attempted the conquest of Gujarat. He was strongly resisted by Bhimdev II who inflicted a crushing defeat on him in 1178 AD.In 1179 he conquered Peshwar and annexed Lahore. In 1186 AD Mohammad Ghori deposed Khusru Malik, the last prince in the generation of Sabuktgin and Mahmud and after occupying Punjab kept himself in a strong position in the Indus region.
In 1191AD Mohammad Ghori met Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain. Here unlike the separate independent forces which Mohammad met in his previous campaigns. He had to face combined armies of Prithviraj, the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer and Delhi. Mohammad Ghori was severely wounded and outnumbered. He was defeated and left the battle-field.
In the very next year in 1192 AD both the armies met again at Tarain. This time Mohammad cleverly out did Prithvi Raj Chauhan. The gateway to Delhi was opened.
In 1194 AD Mohammad Ghori invaded and defeated the ruler of Kannauj. He occupied Benares. Mohammad Ghori had left Qutab-ud-din Aibek who was a slave from Turkistan in charge of the Indian affairs. In 1193 Qutab-ud-din Aibek occupied Delhi and he joined Mohammad Ghori's invasion on Kannauj whose ruler Jaichand was defeated and killed. Gwallior and Anhilwara the capital of Gujarat besides Ajmer was also occupied by 1197 AD. Qutab-ud-din's general Muhammad Khilji successfully plundered and conquered the fort of Bihar in 1193 AD. In about 1199-1202AD Muhammad Khilji brought Lakshmana Sena the ruler of Bengal under his authority. In 1203 Qutab-ud-din Aibek conquered Bundelkhand. Mohammad Ghori died in 1206AD
The Slave Dynasty
Mohammad Ghori had left Qutab-ud-din Aibek who was a slave from Turkistan in charge of the Indian affairs. Qutab-ud-din's general Muhammad Khilji successfully plundered and conquered the fort of Bihar in 1193 AD. In about 1199-1202AD Muhammad Khilji brought Bengal under his authority. Qutab-ud-din died in 1210AD. He had laid the foundation of a new dynasty called the Slave dynasty in 1206AD. In 1211 A.D. Iltumish (son in law of Qutub-ud-din) ascended the throne. He spent his days in retrieving the lost territories of Qutab-ud-din, and also added Malwa and Sind. He defeated Rajput rulers of Ranthambor, Ajmer, Jalor, Nagor, Gwalior. Kannauj, Banaras and Badaun were under his dominion. During his period Qutab Minar in Delhi was completed.
Iltutmish's daughter Razia Begum came to power 1236 AD after a brief power struggle and ruled till 240 AD when she was killed. hram Shah was a mere puppet in the hands of the nobles. Nasir-uddin Mahmud the youngest son of Iltumish came into power after another power struggle. He was in power for twenty-five years. The affairs of the state were left to his father-in-law and minister Ulugh Khan Balban. After the death of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud in 1226 AD the power was taken over by Balban who was an able administrator. He maintained a strict attitude towards the Hindus and kept them under strong suppression with the help of his military power. He was one of the greatest of the military rulers of the Slave dynasty. Balban died in 1287 AD.